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The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.

Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel (either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases), slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, and thus controls and enhances its qualities.

Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and then welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities.

With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire.

Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction.

In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction.

With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.

In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily formed.

In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.

Iron is commonly found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore, usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite.

Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product.

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