Moreover, girls and boys who actively bully others, are seven times as likely to be physically violent in dating relationships, four years later according to the APA (2013). Adolescents exposed to TDV suffer significant short and long-term consequences.Some of the consequences include: depression, suicide, anxiety, alcohol abuse, cigarette and drug use.Perhaps if these details and subtleties were addressed by the leading and aforementioned websites, there might be less confusion and less ambiguity which according to the NIH study, "has led to effective ways in which to screen and intervene when such violence is detected." As a side note, the study conducted by the CDC in 20 (and cited by the APA), is entitled "Growing up with the media" and focuses on the effects of violent forms of media and includes the internet, news media, television and games.It can be viewed here in detail via the Center for Innovative Public Health Research.The findings via Harvard conclude that the "human brain circuitry is not mature until the early 20's," and as such the emotional learning and high-level self-regulation" of teens differs greatly from that of adults as the last connections [in the teen brain] to be fully established are the links between the prefrontal cortex, seat of judgment and problem-solving.The under development of these links, also has correlations to addictive behavior.
Data regarding TDV exposure indicates increased risk for Interpersonal Violence (IPV) in adulthood" as a collateral effect.
The probability of reaching out for help drops even lower, to just 3% for authoritative figures.
Interestingly, 75% of victims will tell a friend or peer.
Of note however, while research has indicated that females "are as likely to be a perpetrator as a victim of violence" according to the APA, there's not enough data to clarify or confirm this statistic.
Most alarming regarding this data, is that these figures are likely a bit lower than projected as only about a third of teens will tell someone about the abuse he/she is experiencing; only 6% of victims will tell a family member.
While TDV has no socio-economic barriers and can occur at any age, according to the CDC, and a majority of the research available, age 11 is identified as the universal age these abusive acts begin to occur. Every day in America, nearly one in two teenagers, or about half of all youth who are in a relationship feel they are "being threatened, pressured and/or controlled to do things they do not want to do." Approximately 72% of eighth and ninth graders are "dating" and more than half of all high school students report seeing TDV among their peers.