Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture gradually revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship, commerce and trade along the Silk Road.
In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand.
The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.
The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220.
After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was rebuilt and profited from the Silk Road.
From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand.
Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia.
The Turkestan Military District was established as part of the military reforms of 1874.
Later the town came to be known as Chachkand/Chashkand, meaning "Chach City".In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy.In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach.The modern Turkic name of Tashkent (City of Stone) comes from Kara-Khanid rule in the 10th century ("Tash" in Turkic languages means stone).After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand.Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority.